How Do Solar Panels Work?
Solar panels work by converting sunlight directly into electricity through a process called photovoltaics (PV).
Photovoltaics occur in materials that exhibit the “photoelectric effect,” which is when photons in sunlight knock electrons in the material free. As long as there is a circuit to travel through, the freed electrons move in a direct electrical current, known as DC electricity.
A solar panel, or photovoltaic module, is a series of small cells made of photoelectric material (often crystalline silicon) and wired together into one unit.
A solar array is a series of solar panels wired together.